Osamělá ženaBullying is long-term, systematic and aggressive behaviour carried out with the aim or effect of hurting someone or gaining a sense of superiority or advantage. It is usually directed against an individual or a group who find it difficult to avoid or defend against such behaviour. Bullying may often be subtle, hardly recognisable at first sight, and in some cases it may not even be intentional.

Bullying can occur among students or among employees, by employees against students, or by students against employees.


The most common manifestations of bullying
Types of bullying
What bullying is not


  • Slander.Bullying
  • Insult.
  • Humiliation.
  • Mockery.
  • Ignoring.
  • Constant silencing.
  • Intentional bad advice.
  • Spiteful acts.
  • Arrogance.
  • Intimidation.
  • Unjustified threats of expulsion (e.g., failing an exam, expulsion from studies, termination of cooperation).

In the work environment, also:

  • Non-appreciation of proper work performance.
  • Excessive checking of performance of duties or attendance.
  • Withholding important information.
  • Constant unwarranted or exaggerated criticism of the work done.
  • Assigning meaningless or overly complex tasks and duties that do not correspond to the job description.
  • Unrealistic deadlines.
  • Unfounded threats of termination of employment.

The following may also be bullying:

  • Unequal treatment/discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnic origin, nationality, ideology, religion, belief, world view, age, gender, sexual orientation, physical disability, social origin or wealth.
  • Sexual harassment.
  • Stalking.
  • Cyberbullying – bullying through electronic media.

This list of manifestations is indicative only. Behaviour acceptable to one individual may be unacceptable to another.



Unintentional bullying. Rather than to hurt, the intention is, for example, to make a student/employee achieve a certain academic/work goal or level of performance in an abusive way.

While the consequences are the same as in the case of deliberate bullying, it is much easier to deal with.



This is deliberate bullying, where the intention is to harm the individual.

Any effort to eliminate it results in intensified attacks.



A strategy of hurting others. The attacker repeats their behaviour with other people, bullying one after another.


  • A one-off conflict.
  • Occasional deviation by a superior, colleague, teacher.
  • Constructive feedback or criticism.
  • Performance monitoring, checking and evaluation.
  • Requiring performance in line with a job description and personal plans or fulfilment of study obligations.
  • Requiring discipline as a result of the management of an employee’s conduct or performance at work, or actions that are justified based on requirements such as OHS.
  • A legitimate letter of reprimand for failure to comply with agreed matters or work duties that have been repeatedly brought to the employee’s attention.
  • Withdrawal or reduction of personal bonuses following a long-term decline in performance.

To be sure you are experiencing bullying, try completing the Inventory of Attacks in the workplace, which you can then use as a basis for dealing with your situation. Compiling a written inventory of attacks is a necessary first step in recognising, investigating and eliminating bullying.